Classification[ edit ] A digital watermark is called robust with respect to transformations if the embedded information may be detected reliably from the marked signal, even if degraded by any number of transformations. There are many possible modifications, for example, lossy compression of the data Paper Paper on watermarking watermarking which resolution is diminishedcropping an image or video, or intentionally adding noise.
This should not be confused with perceptual, that is, watermarking which uses the limitations of human perception to be imperceptible. Alkfide Process A variation of the kraft process using hydrosulfide sulfide-type cooking chemical.
Asphalt Paper on watermarking Paper Two sheets of natural kraft paper laminated in a single ply by means of asphalt. A digital watermark is called perceptible if its presence in the marked signal is noticeable e. Aging Resistance The ability of pulp or paper to maintain certain physical properties, such as strength and brightness, over long periods of time.
Normal combination is kraft backing with Aluminum foil laminated to the kraft by means of asphalt, adhesive, or polyethylene. The signal where the watermark is to be embedded is called the host signal. For video content, temporal modifications and MPEG compression often are added to this list.
Alternative Fibers Common name for non-wood or tree free fibers. Aging Test An evaluation of products and raw materials in the pulp and papermaking process based on an accelerated artificial aging procedure to determine the extent that physical and chemical properties will change with time.
Anti Rust Paper Paper containing added substances which give it the property of protecting the surfaces of ferrous metals against rusting.
Air Laid Nonwoven An air laid web that has been bonded by one or more techniques to provide fabric integrity. Approach Flow System The stock flow system from Fan pump to headbox slice.
Animal Fiber Papermaking fibers such as wool obtained from animals.
Air Filter Paper A type of paper used for filtration of air to remove suspended particles. Anti-foam or Defoamer Chemical additives used at wet end to reduce or eliminate tendencies of the machine white water to foam.
Robustness[ edit ] A digital watermark is called "fragile" if it fails to be detectable after the slightest modification. The message is conceptually zero-bit long and the system is designed in order to detect the presence or the absence of the watermark in the marked object.
A digital watermark is called semi-fragile if it resists benign transformations, but fails detection after malignant transformations. Air Laid Web A web of fiber produced by the air laid process. Ash Content The residue left after complete combustion of paper at high temperature.
Anaerobic Reactor System An effluent treatment system that uses microbes in the absence of oxygen to break down effluent constituents into methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. It is also called dissolving pulp.
Alkali Resistance Freedom of paper from a tendency to become stained or discolored or to undergo a color change when brought in contact with alkaline products such as soap and adhesives.
Archival Paper A paper that is made to last for long time and used for long lasting records. Apparent Density Weight mass per unit volume of a sheet of paper obtained by dividing the basis weight by the Caliper thickness.
Algae Micro organic plant life that forms in paper mill water supplies. Air Drying Using hot air to dry pulp or paper sheets. ASA is especially used in cases where full cure is desired before the size press and where it is important to maintain a high frictional coefficient in the paper product.
Annual Crop Fibers Papermaking fibers derived from plant harvested on a seasonal basis such as wheat straw, rice straw etc. The term approach flow system refers specifically to the fan pump loop where in the pulp mixture is measured, diluted, mixed with necessary additives, and finally screened and cleaned before being discharged on to paper machine wire.
The message is an n-bit-long stream. The Aluminum foil can also be coated with polyethylene. Automatic Packaging System Term applicable to any one of several available systems for open mouth and valve bag packaging where bags are automatically applied to filler spout, filled, weighed, closed if open mouthpalletized, and shrink wrapped.
Anthra Quinone AQ A quinoid compound added to white liquor alkaline cooking liquor to improve pulp yield and to increase the rate of delignification. A measure of the amount of chlorine that is chemically bound to the soluble organic matter in the effluent. Aseptic Packaging Extends the shelf life of non-refrigerated beverages and foods.
Against the Grain Cutting, folding or feeding paper at right angles to the grain or machine direction of the paper.
Alkali Lignin Lignin obtained by acidification of an alkaline extract of wood.A. A4 (size) A common ISO A-size of about /4 by /4 inches or x mm.
For all sizes see International Paper and Board Sizes. Abaca A fiber also known as manila hemp or manila fiber, prepared from the outer sheath of the stems of manila.
The information to be embedded in a signal is called a digital watermark, although in some contexts the phrase digital watermark means the difference between the watermarked signal and the cover signal.Download